Say the phone number associated with the account and wait to be connected. Cablevision Optimum : Call Pick your language, enter the phone number associated with the account and wait to be connected. Charter Communications Spectrum : Call and keep pressing 0. Comcast: Call and keep pressing. Cox Communications: Call and wait for an agent to pick up. DirecTV : Call Say the word "Yes" and wait to be connected. Dish Network: Call Press 1 and then keep pressing 0.
Time Warner Cable: Call and keep pressing , describe your problem, and wait. Verizon FiOS: Call and keep pressing 0. Acer: Call , describe your problem and your product ID number, and wait. Apple: Call 1- press 0, say your question topic, and wait. Asus: Call and press 0, then 1, then select the number for your question topic. BlackBerry: Call Press the numbers for your question topic, and wait. Brother: Call , and keep pressing 0. Google: Call , press the numbers for your product type, and wait.
Hewlett-Packard: Call and keep pressing 0 this takes a while. HTC: Call , select your language, and you'll be connected to be a live rep. Hulu: Call and wait for a representative to pick up. Lenovo: Call , press 3, then 1. LG: Call and say "customer service" and either speak the name of your device, or wait and press the number for your device. Logitech: Call Press 1 then keep pressing 0. Microsoft: Call Press 0 three times, then press 3.
Motorola: Call and press , then 3, then 1. Netflix: Call and press if you don't get a live representative immediately. Olympus: Call Press 1, then 4, then twice. Panasonic: Call Press , then 1, then keep pressing 0. Philips: Call Select your language, then press 0, then 6. Razer: Call , press the number for your question topic, and wait. Sony: Call and keep pressing 0.
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Sharp: Call Press 1 then press the number for your question topic. Toshiba: Call Pick your language, press 1, then 2, then 4, then. Xbox: Call and keep pressing 0. For the tech-savvy, many retailers offer help through email and online chat, and they will ask you to fill out the nature of your problem online before calling. But here are the numbers if you prefer to speak to a person on the phone. Amazon : Call , describe your problem, and wait.
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Costco: Call and press 0 twice. GameStop: Call and wait to be connected. Target : Call , press the numbers for your question topic, and wait. Valve: Call , press 0, leave a message, and wait for someone to call you back. Walmart : Call These exchanges were soon connected together, eventually forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network.
For greater mobility, various radio systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the midth century. Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in In later decades their analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with greater capability and lower cost. Convergence has given most modern cell phones capabilities far beyond simple voice conversation.
Most are smartphones , integrating all mobile communication and many computing needs. A traditional landline telephone system, also known as plain old telephone service POTS , commonly carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair C in diagram of insulated wires, the telephone line. The control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, and a dial.
The ringer, or beeper, light or other device A7 , alerts the user to incoming calls. The hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call. A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call. Until the s dials used almost exclusively the rotary technology, which was replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling DTMF with pushbutton telephones A4. A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant.
Telephones transmit both the incoming and outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires. A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference EMI and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair. The strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone transmitter does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker receiver signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil A3 and other components compensate the imbalance. The junction box B arrests lightning B2 and adjusts the line's resistance B1 to maximize the signal power for the line length.
Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths A8. The line voltages are negative compared to earth, to reduce galvanic corrosion. Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires. The landline telephone contains a switchhook A4 and an alerting device, usually a ringer A7 , that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is " on hook " i.
The off-hook components include a transmitter microphone, A2 , a receiver speaker, A1 , and other circuits for dialing, filtering A3 , and amplification. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the switchhook A4 , which powers the telephone by connecting the transmitter microphone , receiver speaker , and related audio components to the line.here
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The off-hook circuitry has a low resistance less than ohms which causes a direct current DC , which comes down the line C from the telephone exchange. The exchange detects this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone , the caller then presses the number keys to send the telephone number of the called party.
The keys control a tone generator circuit not shown that makes DTMF tones that the exchange receives. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse dialing , sending electrical pulses, that the exchange can count to get the telephone number as of many exchanges were still equipped to handle pulse dialing. If the called party's line is available, the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal about 75 volts alternating current AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany to alert the called party to an incoming call.
If the called party's line is in use, the exchange returns a busy signal to the calling party. However, if the called party's line is in use but has call waiting installed, the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. The ringer of a telephone A7 is connected to the line through a capacitor A6 , which blocks direct current but passes the alternating current of the ringing signal.
The telephone draws no current when it is on hook, while a DC voltage is continually applied to the line.
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Exchange circuitry D2 can send an AC current down the line to activate the ringer and announce an incoming call. When there is no automatic exchange, telephones have hand-cranked magnetos to generate a ringing voltage back to the exchange or any other telephone on the same line. When a landline telephone is inactive on hook , the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of direct current to indicate that the line is not in use.
When the called party picks up the handset, they actuate a double-circuit switchhook not shown which may simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. This, in turn, draws direct current through the line, confirming that the called phone is now active. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal, and both telephones are now active and connected through the exchange.
The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. When a party hangs up, placing the handset back on the cradle or hook, direct current ceases in that line, signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over trunk lines which establish connections between exchanges. In modern telephone networks, fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections.
Satellite technology may be used for communication over very long distances. In most landline telephones, the transmitter and receiver microphone and speaker are located in the handset, although in a speakerphone these components may be located in the base or in a separate enclosure.
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Powered by the line, the microphone A2 produces a modulated electric current which varies its frequency and amplitude in response to the sound waves arriving at its diaphragm. The resulting current is transmitted along the telephone line to the local exchange then on to the other phone via the local exchange or via a larger network , where it passes through the coil of the receiver A3.
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